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Definition of Absence

The state of being physically away.
At the workplace, when your employee has to take a day off, for either acceptable or unacceptable reasons, it is called employee absence.
It becomes concerning when it happens frequently, or when your employee makes a habit of it.  

Types of Absence

There are essentially two types of leaves:
Authorized absence:  These are leaves/time-offs approved by the manager, usually informed beforehand. This includes personal time, sick leave, vacation leave, maternity/paternity, medical, and bereavement leave.

Unauthorized absence: Leaves not approved by the manager. It includes time-offs that are taken without proper reason or evidence. Long term leaves without supporting reasons, or medical certificates come under this section.

Here are some numbers that tell why it is important to monitor employee absenteeism:

Here are some ways in which you can calculate the rate of employee absenteeism:

Employee absence affects your bottom line significantly, along with loss of employee morale and productivity. Most employers take this lightly, and as a result, do not understand the benefits of controlling absenteeism. Here's how you can measure it:

Incidence rate: Number of absences per 100 employees for a period. It doesn’t take into account the duration of absence by a particular employee. It simply tells you how often your employees take time off. 
Formula: (Number of absence/Number of employees) x 100

Inactivity rate: It is the percentage of work not done/lost because of absenteeism. 
Formula: (Total hours of absence/ Total hours of scheduled work time) x 100

Severity rate: It is the measure of the total time lost by the employee due to absence in a given time period.
Formula: (Average number of hours lost/ Average number of hours usually worked) x 100